Maintenance Resources

Sunday, January 31, 2010

Success of JH depends upon success of smooth responsibility handover

As we know, to establish a new system or a new mindset, is easy with new plant but much more difficult with an old running industry. It is because of mindset of peoples are adjusted with old one and it is general human instinct that they reject the new because they feel insecure in new circumstances. It needs a strong leader with strong support to say good bye to old and welcome the new.

Autonomous maintenance which plays the key role in TPM success, shakes the OLD  - "I operate you fix" culture. When participants are welcoming  new, contributing effectively for it, then the  process of responsibility changeover between maintenance and operator need to be smooth. Any overwhelm or any sort of discourage will affect negatively. So proper encourage, sincere support among all shop floor personnel, talking and reviewing JH activities to make it success.

Hurdles on field :

Operator’s view –
1.      I don’t know – I don’t know ‘bout the machine function. I trained to operate it and can do that much only. Even I don’t have in depth technical knowledge also. (Knowledge problem)
2.      Extra job – OK! I can help maintenance personnel but doing daily is an extra responsibility. I am not paying for that OR We have no time for that (Attitude problem )
3.      Another Ticking job : Oh! Another ticking job. Ok! Will do it  (poor Morality)

Minus of Maintenance:
1.      Cleaning, lubricating, re-tightening, Inspection, (CLRI) chart are not well described. ( Doubt about outcome )
2.      Charts are in English and so may not be understandable by operators. So simply ticking. ( Half hearted job)
3.      Don’t have time to re-check JH check sheets. Again go back to old . (No importance and honor to the new. Feels good to stuck with old)
4.      JH check sheet was born in the Eve of JH initiation. No modification or review there after (OLD IS GOLD !!!!!)
5.       No time to support Fuguai removals. Red Tags are there for log time and once removed with out removing the fuguai.(Customer visit ???) (No honor / attitude)
6.      I did CLRIT chart for them. Rest is production job. (Jumping to step 4 ?!)
7.  This fixing / tightening will be done by maintenance crew, coz it is critical.( Less level of confidence showing to operators and obviously this stand has taken without giving a try to train them to do so)

To over come all this the sharing of responsibility need to be understands.
1.      In a continuous process floor, It is not possible to do PM always on time.
2.      PM gap can be increased if and only if natural deterioration is there in machine. So, support to be provided at desired extend.
3.      Machine vibrates. It causes loose bolts and nuts, small leakages…which can easily detects by operator if they get proper knowledge and guidance and stitch in time saves nine.
4.      JH and PM are the two wheels of a cart. One can not be promoted with out another.

Supports require to extend at the period of handover:

  1. Initial cleaning: Dirty machine, unable to understand the problem area, no chance of visual control, So, TPM starts from Cleaning. (“Cleaning is inspection and inspection is detection of troubles”)
                            Require Support: Initially it leaves a bad test to operators…a under rated job. So maintenance has to take active part to share their pain and sufferings. Some Kaizens are expected for easy cleaning. Encourage them to find fuguai and give the pride of normality restoration.
  1. Counter measures against source of contamination :  Focused on CLRI and reducing time taken for this activity
                               Require Support : Quick Red Tag removal. Kaizens on easy access, easy inspection. Skill enhancement trainings on identifying abnormalities and fixing of those abnormalities. Provide require tools and tackles require to carry those activities independently

(Example of Visual inspection made easy Pics :  Curtsy:  A lot, in short google picture search)

  1. Tentative cleaning standard for CLRI: tentative and feasible standards to do it regularly and independently
                  Support require: support that does not damage operator’s self identity. Maintenance dept. should not be instructive though need to be careful to make CLRI standards.

  1. General Inspection: improve inspection standards by including interior of machine. Require high level skill to detect and remove abnormalities.
                     Support Require: Skill education to JH leaders and down the lane deployment.
  1. Autonomous Inspection: Independent inspection as per tentative check sheets.
                      Support require:     a)    Clear allotment of task between production and maintenance
                                                       b) System building and support for quality maintenance

  1. Standardization : Develop Standard for production control items
                                      Support require: Strong and effective PM

  1. Autonomous management : Perform improvement activity and reliability study
                                       Support require: General support to sustain the developed system and Strive for excellence.

Friday, January 22, 2010

Jishu Hozen (JH) / Autonomous Maintenance (AM) plays key role in success of TPM

TPM Focused on Equipment and to stop equipment related Losses. It believes every breakdown and defect is due to a deviation from the required Basic Machine Conditions. (Some good presentations and books are available for MAIOSK members. Pls login to Group site)

Jishu Hozen – One of the Most powerful part of TPM (Other is KK I believe ) which if correctly and fully implemented can deliver a very good result in terms of time, money saving and boost morality of shop floor team member and helps to implement other pliers.:

Why JH?

Maintenance manager with his team can’t plan his day. Breakdowns are sporadic and maintenance teams are too busy to tackle them. It may be drive belt torn up, may be line choke up and  hundreds of different small causes which takes unnecessary long time in reporting, searching, manpower deploying. On the other hand production team is fighting hard to meet target deadline. Loosing of man hour, loosing of machine hours are obvious, unaffordable but unavoidable.
Breakdown is the tip of the iceberg. It often shows symptoms before to breakdown like, ware, looseness, abnormal heat, leakage, surface damage, vibration, noise etc. most of the time only operator knows these abnormalities but due to poor mindset or poor knowledge they are not being in position to acknowledge it or if acknowledged then unable to make this small repair.

Productions are unable to plan to hand it over to maintenance for PM due to lagging production pressure and blaming to maintenance team for breakdowns and poor reliability. On the other hand maintenance team is blaming operator..
Whoever to be blame the final out come is a Huge loss to company. So, both need to come together to address the issue for coming out of that un healthy situation.

Sources of most major losses are equipment related and operators are very near to source. If they are taught, they can treat most of them fast and effectively. It’s the mass cultural change what is the main break of ice, making new mind sets and so, it’s the most challengeable and holds the key of TPM success.

Measuring                               TPM                                         JH
P (Productivity improvement)           1.5 to 2 times           increase by  near bout 1.5 times
     Reduction of B/D                       1/10 to 1/250             reduced by 60 %

Q Reduction of production defect            1/10                Significant reduction
     Reduction of customer claim               1/4
C  Reduction of maintenance cost             30 %           Cost of breakdown reduced
D Reduction of product inventories
S  Reduction of accident
M increase in no. of suggestions                 10%           increase by 10 %

Goals of JH

Autonomous maintenance is answer of that. It’s a first level of maintenance like nursing of patient and PM is second level action like doctor to take special actions to improve the machine strength over the stress. Both are equally important to restore normal deterioration and once we restore it we can predict the life.
 “Stitch in time saves nine.” Goals are –
1)      Honor basic condition ( Step 1 – initial cleaning and Step 2 –Counter measure against contamination source, Thorough elimination of FUGUAI (Red tag / White Tag,  Step -3 – Tentative Standards of cleaning)
2)      Sustain Machine’s basic condition by improving operators’ skill (Step4- General inspection and Step 5 – Autonomous inspection
3)      Book Excellency and strive for higher – (Step 5 Standardization and Step 7 – Autonomous management )

How it plays key role in success of TPM
1)      It’s success depends upon involvement of Mass in shop floor
2)      It is cultural change (breaking of main attitude hurdle “I use you Fix” to I operate I fix”) which means all thinking process are in line with TPM Goal.
3)      Outcomes are easily visible which motivates other pillar implementation.
4)      Though Success of JH depends upon Education and training, but if JH attitude is strong, other pillars (PM, QM, SHE) find their base issues to address.

Next Post ::Success of JH depends upon Support of JH and successful task sharing between PM and JH
Expected date of posting : 31st jan, 10

Sunday, January 17, 2010

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Monday, January 11, 2010

Implementation and deployment of TPM

Start for TPM Excellency:
1.      Decide to do it
2.      Call a consultant
3.      Decide a coordinator
4.      Wait for result for few times
5.      Sitting out from shop floor, in air cooled room, discuss over “Feel happy “rosy rosy graphs.

FORGET IT! Almost 80% of industries lost themselves somewhere in between TPM. If we don’t have proper dedication and cash flow support from top most management then all above are adding LOSS to company i.e. MUDA.

Those who played symphony of success preferred this Way:
  1. Motivation, commitment No Show business, No shortcuts. We need it for our survivals and we need it truly,madly,deeply.

  1. NO TPM : There should be no separation in management group as TPM. It will be the most integrated part of industries culture Leader will lead it too along with regular job. (Success of TPM is responsibilities of all not for a group) Update :(after got some comments , I would like to clear it) I Have seen every dept has dedicate one junior to do documentation of TPM which make it one man force...others like to stick on old AND SO NO TPM (as a team its every man's job and it is not additional, it's part of every days job)

  1. Ready to afford the pain of new -  old goes hard and new is not convenient. Sudden drop in productivity is expected and to be accepted with open heart.
  2. Feasibility study – There is no hard and fast method. It is the result of trial and error method in Toyota. Just follow the guidelines and change to make it feasible.
  3. No over simplicity or over complicity – Easy Understandable to all but eyes to yields corporate define goals.
  4. Roadmap depends upon feasibility study with clear indication with where to go and how to go and how to flag out achievement.
  5. Before to start, key driving committee should standardize indicating parameters – tracking method and achievable limits. It will help management to bring all in common platform.
  6. Self audit, group audit. Cross audit to achieve and sustain the goal
  7. Regular follow-up by committee and top leaders
  8. Model line with experimental liberty to the group who is responsible for revolution. (it’s a team work. No individual experiment pls)
  9. Horizontal deployment and timely review for probable updating of deployed system

Pic curtsy :

    Prerequisites (Ground Work):
    1.      Don’t start TPM from Shop floor. Starts from Kitchen and toilet .It gives moral motivation boost to shop floor employees. (I learnt it from an article by SAN Yamaguchi on TPM CLUB and experimented. It proven true)
    2.      Basic 5S with basic honor to product need to be achieved before to start TPM
    3.      Commonly and openly excepting the truth that we need to change ourselves to survive.
    4.      Complete corrective action on all probable loop falls before to start deployment (Before it catches momentum).
    5.      REAL Attitude to solve problems –REAL DATA, REAL PLACE, REALITY.
    6.      Easy one way communication method will help to highlight the problems.
    7.      Integration of TPM with system so that it should not come as extra responsibility
    8.      motivation of people to get kaizen ideas
    9.      Intensive HR activities to motivate and retain employees (Getting good is not a problem retaining them is the challenge)
    10.  Education and training to all key people before deployment.
    11.  If you like something in others, don’t copy it, adopt it, surface copy may irrelevant in other system.

    At the end of this post, I am just sharing a mail, a cry of a failure TPM responsible person’s honest attempt which shows lack of commitment, poor  authority-responsibility balance (Scapegoat position), and so, Different priority in Management. (This is a mail came to me as a part of one of online TPM groups, just sharing with you with the hope that, before to test success, we need to know the cause of failure). Just compare with your situation.

    Dear Friends,

    There may be several reasons why it fails.

    But what I have observed is,

    Not only, the top management support is required, both the middle level/bottom line support is required in the implementation program.

    In my case, the top person gives the work to implement it. But he doesn’t give any time for that work. Yes. i know that there is some priority is there for the management
    First is the production, rest of all next.

    But even for putting the Five S & TPM sign boards, the top person says yes, do it. if he is not there, may be out of station, then hr manger/next person restricts the work. no don't do it. when the boss comes, then do it.

    for just getting the approval it takes three days, then it will be send to purchase department for further process. I have waited one and half months to put a sign board.

    My reporting officer is having some priority, for him this Implementation is the last priority. he also doesn’t care about me. Leaves it freely.

    Again after a long stretch, i have started implementing the five S, taken all the photographs of the improvement required areas and send all the photo's to the department HOD's and made a copy to the top person.

    ten days gone, still nobody has touched it so far. they are telling we don’t have time to do it.

    top person also is not having time to listen me.

    Like this it is running here. but still I am continue to push the people. (push system will not work)

    I have also requested the top person to be with me for initial pick-up, for quick progress. I don’t know he tells ok, a after that he Leaves it.
    I don’t know what to do next?

    but I am initiating some of the visual improvements what i can do i am
    If anybody is facing such a typical type, please inform me.


    Future Topic: Success of TPM depends on success of JH.
    Probable posting date : Next Sunday
    "Your Comments, My inspiration"

    Some definition and Confusions:

    There are few terms which create unnecessary confusion and debates which should not be. Here are logics
    Debates: Root cause analysis=  Outcome is One and only actionable cause. Pic is self explanatory (Hats off to copy write owner, I am just sharing it)

    OEE = Over all Equipment efficiency. This indicator is multiplication of productivity (man-machine), equipment quality rate, equipment reliability (Availability) rate.

    For a given time, in gives the projection of use of man machine potential and the scope of improvement.
    Debates: What to consider, shift time or 24 Hrs (Machine potential is 24 Hrs.). of time ?
    ð     It is management to decide how many Hrs. it need to run the shift. We just calculate what is the potential of “ready to dispatch”  production for that given time.
    ð     So, OEE will be calculated depends upon a particular facility operating time.

    Debates: For a assembly line with different product rate of individual machine, what will be total available time?
    => Consider Whole line as a single machine and calculate the rest. If one machine affects the product output rate then aggregate OEE of individual machines will give wrong picture.

    MTBF = Mean time between failure = total machining time / no. of stops
    Debates : how to calculate plant MTBF ?
    => Don’t calculate available time as no. of machine X available time. Again it will give wrong projection. Idea behind plant MTBF is to know rete of breakdowns of plant. So, available time will be as same as available time of a line.(MAX 24 Hrs)

    A few more on PdM continuation of earlier post

    It’s a new wing of preventive maintenance, a new dimension. It will need time to the industries to opt for these technologies.
    if you are curios , like to play advantage then here are two sites which are offering free basic courses( you will get outline details).

    1. - It offers free basic interactive course on vibration analysis. Require free registration and then show their mails a junk folded..
    2. - Offers free courses on thermal imaging and energy auditor course too..

    Sunday, January 3, 2010

    Predictive maintenance An Over View

    Predictive maintenance (PdM) or condition based maintenance (CBM) is to monitor predefine parameters over the time and predict it’s failure time to make corrective repair to restore its normality.

    This is the last and final stage of preventive maintenance which aims to optimize maintenance period and costs by monitoring the trends of equipment deterioration trends.

    It is possible to sustain zero breakdowns through TBM itself but there may chance to replace some spares before their life ends which means over and costly maintenance. So, By increasing scope of CBM we can optimize maintenance cost and time.
    It targeted at parts that have had serious breakdown in pasts and or parts that cause costly damage (Total downtime costs) when they fails and due to high costs of spares it is not economical to consider it under TBM.

    Pre-requisites for PdM
    : rushing to PdM diagnostic tools or service yields no results

    a) Identify accelerated deterioration factors and implement thorough restoration and improvement through JH
    b) Un expected failures can be reduced. Consider in-depth Time Base Maintenance (PM / TBM) in order to find the deterioration pattern
    c) Sufficient data to compare with ideal.
    d) Failures patterns are not frequent and a costly affair for both to afford reactive maintenance and keeping spare.
    e) Decide control value for each deterioration pattern

    Prediction Methods

    1. Measuring electrical motor currents, temperature, Insulation level: Monitoring electrical motors current and temperature trends tell you about Mechanical side problems, aging of motors.

    2. Thermal imaging - It is a non-contact temperature capturing device which collects temperature data from multiple points and store in a 2D profile. Some thermal imagers can compare present profile with base profile and help to detect the problem area. Excellent and versatile method of predicting problems. Commonly use for .

    i) Measuring bearing temp. of large motors
    ii) Identify leaks
    iii) Loose connection in electrical circuits.
    iv) Hot-spots in electronics circuits

    3. Motor currents wave form – these spectra will tell us bout jerk loads. As example, If we want to check belt conveyor motor then we have to monitor coefficient of friction between belt and pully which is decreasing with time. If slippage is occurring then produced torque also decreasing which in proportion with load current. So, We can detect slippage by analyzing wave form of load current).

    4. Vibration Analysis : Vibration data. gives performance evaluation for Rotating machinery (identifying potential defects such as bearing failure, gearing faults, drive belt problems, bent or misaligned shafts, coupling faults and driven element faults. Structural failures such as poor mounting, resonances, and feedback from other machines
    Popular method is shock pulse method (SPM). It measures two value. One is carpet value and another is Maximum value..
    5. Engine oil analysis (Used oil analysis and ware particle analysis). Used oil analysis determines the condition of the lubricant itself, determines the quality of the lubricant, and checks its suitability for continued use. Wear particle analysis determines the mechanical condition of machine components that are lubricated. Through wear particle analysis, you can identify the composition of the solid material present and evaluate particle type, size, concentration, distribution, and morphology.

    But again, reliable predictive maintenance equipments are precise but costly too. So, it need to be use cautiously to determine diagnostic process and frequency to optimize maintenance time and cost. (One of the powerful PdM paradigms is not to repair equipment too early or too late
    Another difficulty is to gather data for perfect ideal one to compare. So, prerequisites must be fulfilled.

    Scope of PdM in Indian scenario:
    In Indian scenario, PM (TBM) is still a popular method over PdM which is not so popular because
    1.      Less knowledge on technical know how on PdM analysis methods and so, less confidence on these technologies.
    2.      For in-house PdM it needs a big investment for purchasing hardware which in not feasible in most of the cases.
    3.      For operating and analyzing it needs a specifically trained and experienced personnel which is not available.
    4.      In European country, there are many private agencies who offer predictive maintenance services with up to date equipments. But here due to less requirement and awareness there is no such strong customer base and so, no such frequent services available. (Shock Pulse Method Services available for compressor and generators but other sources of services still I don’t know )
                    5. Less awareness on energy audits and survey in general industries

    Reference these standards(curtsy :Fluke website) when creating safe standard work procedures for PdM program.
    International Electrical and Electronic Engineers standard IEEE-90 describes the elements of an EPM program, including safety, while 1584â„¢-2002 provides a guide for arc flash hazard calculations and ANSI/IEE C2-81 National Electrical Safety Code governs heavy industrial installations.

    MTS-2001 Maintenance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power Distribution Equipment and Systems from the International Electrical Testing Association (NETA),, contains set of step-by-step standard procedures for inspecting, testing and evaluating system components and appendices that recommends maintenance intervals for various components.

    Standard NFPA 70B Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment Maintenance from The National Fire Protection Association provides a PdM program overview, as well as an appendix with sample tests and record forms. For each component of the electrical system, it describes how you should inspect and test each sub-element. For example, in the section on rotating machinery it covers stator and rotor windings, then goes into brushes, collector rings, commutators, and then bearings and lubrication.
    • NFPA 70B also includes a section on test methods, including insulation testing, transformer turns-ratio testing, circuit breaker testing and ground impedance testing, and power quality issues such as harmonics, transients, unbalance, sags and swells.
    Also refer to NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace for safety training, procedures, personal protective gear (PPE) requirements, and lockout/tagout procedures.

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 29 CFR, 1910 Subpart S Electrical and Subpart I Personal Protective Equipment Safety standards for electrical systems, safe work practices, maintenance requirements.
    ISO 6781 International Standards Organization (ISO) (American National Standards Institute) discusses thermal insulation, qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes, and infrared methodology.
    ASTM International ASTM E 1934, 1213, 1311, 1316, and 1256 Standard guide for examining electrical and mechanical equipment with infrared thermography, plus additional thermography references in ASTM 1060 and 1153.